Soil losses of 3.2 Mg ha−1 yr−1 with the harvesting of potatoes have been reported (Table 5). Rainfall produces four types of soil erosion: splash erosion, sheet erosion, rill erosion, and gully erosion. Erosion by Runoff. D.A. The irrigation component calculates erosion and deposition on border irrigation areas. J.B. Grau, ... J.J. Martín, in Encyclopedia of Agriculture and Food Systems, 2014. Specifically the model considers three erosion processes: detachment, transportation and deposition. "Erosion"(April, 2011) in Ecology Today Retrieved from: ecologiahoy.com. As a result, the soil becomes crusty and impermeable. Retrieved from: astromia.com. "Rain Erosion Damages"(2017) Poly Tech A / S Recovered from: ainerosion.com. Rainfall erosion is caused by the detachment and movement of particles from the thin soil caused by the impact of raindrops on the ground. This criterion is considered as ‘more is better.’. (2017) Retrieved from: vanderbilt.edu. Under the pressures of overgrazing, deforestation, and irrational reclamation for agriculture production purpose, vegetation was degraded and destroyed in desertification-prone land areas, steppes were overgrazed and degraded in large quantity, soil was salinized and deteriorated, and soil/water conservative capacity was reduced and lost in many affected developing countries due to floods, drought, and other natural disasters. Date Published: May 25th, 2018 . Sediment yield from wind-driven rainfall experiments in Jutland, Denmark (FOU, abbreviation for the test site near Foulum; 11, year of experiment; R1-R2-WR, one set of consecutive test runs on one plot; R1, first rainfall on dry soil; R2, second rainfall on wet soil; WR, wind-driven rainfall on wet soil. Soil removed from the field with the harvested crop can be considerable for root crops such as potatoes, sugar beets, and carrots. First, when the splash of rain, with its impact, hits the soil particles. During rainfall, soil splashes due to the impact of rain drops. "The erosion of the terrestrial surface"(2017) Educational Astronomy. S.K. They separate the particles from the soil and destroy their structure. Soil water erosion on cultivated lands represents a severe threat to soil resources in the world, and especially in Mediterranean areas, due to their topographic, edaphic, and climatic conditions (Prosdocimi et al., 2016). Have been established taking into account actors' opinions (Grau, 2003). Rainfall causes erosion of exposed areas in two ways; rain splash and transportation. In addition, heavier droplets travel at speeds higher than small droplets. A drop of six millimeters weighs 216 times more than a drop of a millimeter. As it increases, erosion by gullies, can also cut below the groundwater level. Water is the main cause of erosion on Earth, being one of the most powerful forces on the planet. Rivers – Rivers can create a huge amount of erosion over time. Inter-rill erosion describes the movement of topsoil by rainfall and its resultant surface flow. The WEPP watershed model is made up of four major components: hillslope, channel, impoundment, and irrigation. The figures included in this criterion have been obtained from the results of different forums and meetings with institutions, organizations, and native people (Grau, 2003). García-Ruiz et al. Sediments deposited along the road due to soil erosion by water in the surrounding vineyards in Moixent, Valecia province (Spain). There are two stages of sheet erosion. (1989) and USDA (1989). An impoundment element can receive input from hillslope or channel elements. The watershed version is a catchment model which includes the slope model and estimates the sediment delivery to channels. As the runoff flows, it may pick up loose material on the surface, such as bits of soil and sand. Crimmins, in Environmental and Pollution Science (Third Edition), 2019. Therefore, the water table when it falls, can modify the conditions and reduce the coverage of soil in a river basin, further increasing erosion. Plus rain water makes temporary river streams that cause erosion too. A watershed must be represented by at least one hillslope element. Retrieved from: Springer Link link.springer.com. Water Erosion. "What is rain splash erosion and why is it important?"Exploration. These channels, when united, create other even larger channels, which progressively form grooves, ditches and, finally, larger caverns called"gullies". Liquid water is the major agent of erosion on Earth. In addition to the cost of this impact, eutrophication of watercourses and lakes, destruction of wildlife, sedimentation of dams, reservoirs, rivers and flood damage are all significant, as are the losses Agricultural activities. For example, hills and ridges formed by erosion tend to have smoothly rounded ridges that are distinct from the sharper profiles created by other forms of water erosion. This water that travels across the land is called runoff. The erosion is very apparent when the walls are inclined. Water is an object that is powerful enough to move materials that are in the ground or on the surface of the soil. In order to prevent erosion and save soil, you need to understand the different types of erosion that can occur. It can consider processes, such as infiltration, sediment transport and deposition, evaporation, transpiration, snow melt, residue and canopy effects on soil detachment, and contour effects. Eight criteria have been applied following field research, expert panels, social investigation, and personal interviews. The soil profiles in most of Iowa are now filled to capacity with water. This criterion is considered as ‘more is better.’, The relative economical benefits using each alternative in a period of 25 years have been obtained. Such an erosion, where a bit of soil is scraped away, due to each falling raindrop, is called Splash erosion. These results confirm the hypothesis that wind-driven rain potentially produces an increase in soil erosion rates. The concepts of stochastic weather generation, infiltration theory, hydrology, hydraulics, soil physics, plant science, and erosion mechanism have been used in this model. The model uses a daily time step and simulates the process of plant growth, soil properties and hydrologic processes. Gradual threats. It is when the soil is broken down into smaller pieces and they become loose in the earth’s surface. According to Montgomery (2007), cultivated fields from different regions mostly erode at rates typical of Alpine terrains. Winds erosion, transport and deposit materials and are effective agents in several areas of this region. Gravity causes the water to flow from higher to lower ground. Some water from the rain is evaporated or soaked up by plants other parts of the rain sinks into the soil. Erosion by Water . Soil eroded in agricultural landscapes can also be delivered to the drainage network (Borselli et al., 2008), with direct consequences on the rates and magnitudes of floodplain sedimentation (Doolittle, 2006; Knox, 2006). A conceptual representation of a hillslope and a watershed for application of WEPP are shown in Fig. As we write this article spring rains are coming hard and fast causing substantial soil erosion when soils are most vulnerable because of degraded crop residue cover, soil preparation by tillage and no crop canopy. Lighter materials - such as fine sand, silt, clay, and organic material - that emanate from raindrops are washed away more easily by current, leaving behind large grains of sand, pebbles, and gravel. This is called splash erosion. Laminar erosion develops in two stages. If the area is on a slope, however, unabsorbed water begins to flow downhill into a thin layer, dragging soil particles that have been loosened by the bombardment of raindrops. The overland flow hydrograph is developed by assuming broad, uniform sheet flow. All these types of flowing water can cause erosion and deposition. If the erosion on … The WEPP landscape profile version model requires four input data files: a soil file, a slope profile file, a crop management file, and a climate file. Rill detachment is considered to be zero when the hydraulic shear stress is less than critical shear strength of the soil. The water erosion rates observed during six simulated sequences that involved 18–30-min rainfalls during the Jutland field campaign of 2011 are presented in Fig. How to Prevent Water Erosion. The impact of soil erosion by water processes like rain splash, overland flow/sheetwash and rill formation is the removal of soil. In the WEPP watershed model, hillslope elements can contain up to 10 overland flow sub-elements which may represent changes in cropping patterns (strip cropping), soil variation in the downslope direction, different land use patterns, or changes in grazing intensities. In this way, a single storm can remove one millimeter of dirt, which may seem insignificant, but translates to more than five tons per acre. Hill slopes are prone to sheet erosion and rill erosion. About 95% of soil is splashed by falling rain drops and runoff water erodes less than 5% of the soil. Water erosion (WE) is very important because of the interaction between natural and socioeconomic conditions. Smaller particles remain suspended in air for longer periods of time and are therefore more likely to travel much longer distances. Rills are the shallow drainage lines that are … Erosion caused by run-off rain water near Ponta d'Ana, Algarve, Portugal. Wind and water erosion are not the only means by which soil can be moved beyond the boundaries of a field. Splash Erosion. Representation of watershed in WEPP erosion model. Erosion is caused by the bombardment of the soil surface due to raindrops, which act as small bombs falling on exposed or naked ground. In arid zones, rainfall erosion plays an important role in landscape sculpture. The Rain erosion Is the manifestation of the action of rain on the earth's surface. The relative WE indexes figure in the IM. Rainwater and sea water can act as weak acids. The kinematic wave equations for one-dimensional overland flow are: where h is the local flow depth (m); t is the time (s); q is the discharge per unit width (m2/s); x is the distance down the plane (m); r is the rainfall intensity (m/s); f is the infiltration rate (m/s); v is excess rainfall rate (m/s), and α is the depth – discharge coefficient (m0.5/s). Now imagine when heavy rain falls, millions of rain drops fall on the soil for many days, causing considerable soil erosion. Interrill sediment delivery, and Di, is considered to be independent of x. Rill erosion, Df, is positive for detachment and negative for deposition. The Erosion of Reinforced Concrete Walls by the Flow of Rainwater Kawthar Hadja, and Fattoum Kharchi* (Received February 26, 2016, Accepted October 24, 2016, Published online February 28, 2017) Abstract: The action of rainwater on reinforced concrete walls has led to an erosion phenomenon. A hundred tons of particles per acre may be dislodged during a single rainstorm. J.F. Sheet and rill erosion. A hillslope element can drain into a channel either at the headwaters or laterally, or into an impoundment. Retrieved from: soilerosion.net (2017) England. The University of Maryland University College notes that one inch of rain water running off from the roof of a 1,500 square foot building produces 935 gallons of water. Therefore soil wind erosion and soil texture are not always directly related. The user must have file building tools and access to appropriate soil, tillage implement, plant, and climate databases in order to build the four data files. There are three versions of the model: mountain slope, watershed, and grid. Conservation measures that have been effectively used to reduce soil erosion on agricultural areas include contouring, strip cropping, conservation tillage, terraces, buffer strips, and use of polyacrylamide on irrigated areas. Interrill erosion is conceptualized as a process of sediment delivery to rills, whereby the interrill sediment is either carried off the hillslope by the flow in the rill or deposited in the rill. As the wind blows, soil particles are dislodged and begin to roll or bounce along the soil surface in a process called saltation. For details, reference may be made to Lane and Nearing (1989). They have been considered in each subzone. Rainfall erosion is caused by the detachment and movement of particles from the thin soil caused by the impact of raindrops on the ground. A brief description of the model is given here. The WEPP erosion model uses a steady-state sediment continuity equation to describe the downslope movement of suspended sediment in a rill: where x (m) represents the distance downslope, G (kg/s/m) is the sediment load, Di (kg/s/m2) is the lateral sediment flow from the interrill areas, and Df (kg/s/m2) is the rill erosion or deposition rate. Firstly the mats have high surface cover to prevent the rain drops from pounding into the soil. The hillslope component is the WEPP hillslope model which calculates erosion and deposition on rill and interrill flow areas. A channel element can receive water and sediment input from hillslope elements, upstream channel elements (up to three channel elements), or an impoundment. The function for interrill sediment delivery also includes terms to account for ground and canopy cover effects, which are discussed below. 4 shows an example of soil erosion in a vineyard located in Spain. The profiles are at or near saturation. When a lot of rain falls in a short period of time, much of the water is unable to soak into the ground. Figure 5.1.4. Prediction of the effects of land use and management practices on erosion control are perhaps the most important part of an erosion prediction tool if the purpose is to plan land and farm management systems to control erosion. As the water travels it takes the soil particles with it. 4. The main aim was to employ the current knowledge to develop a model as an alternative to USLE. The slightly acidic water sinks into the ground and moves through pore spaces in soil and cracks and fractures in rock. There are many different forces in nature that cause erosion. It affects agricultural land in much of Northern Africa and the Near East; parts of Southern, Central, and Eastern Asia; Australia; Northwest China; Southern South America; and North America. Rainwater harvesting (RWH) is the collection and storage of rain, rather than allowing it to run off. Water erosion is very simplistically speaking caused by rainfall, river flow, waves (wave action, hydraulic action and abrasion), corrosion, glacier movement, thawing, etc., while wind erosion is caused by wind picking up loose particles (deflation) that batter the ground as they fly by (abrasion), causing additional particles to become loose and fly away. Both are effectively stopped by an erosion mat. Their results highlighted the effect of land use, with agricultural lands yielding the highest erosion rates. Núñez Solís, J. Surface residue, for example, plays an important role in terms of predicting the amount of soil lost during a given rainfall event. They can also cause erosion when raindrops gather together and flow like small streams. Gilley, in Encyclopedia of Soils in the Environment, 2005. Rainfall characteristics, soil factors, topography, climate, and land use are important elements affecting soil erosion. The impoundment component calculates deposition of sediment within terrace impoundments and stock tanks. Although generally convincing, test sequence number three (FOU 3) shows that other factors are able to reduce erosion almost entirely. Water droplets in their downward path impact the ground and pluck particles, generating a tiny form of laminar erosion. The main consequences are a loss of cultivable, fertile land, soil structure degradation, destruction of infrastructures, pollution of surface water, flood risk, etc. Rill Erosion. It should be noted that finer textured soils (those with more silt and clay sized particles) are often less erodible than sandy soils. Among the cultivated lands, vineyards deserve a particular attention because, aside from representing one of the most important crops for income and employment, they also have proven to be the form of agricultural use that causes one of the highest soil losses (Prosdocimi et al., 2016). Erosion by water begins with a drop of rain. This reflects the ability of fine particles to form soil large aggregates that hold the soil in place during high wind events. Soil erosion by water (aka 'water erosion') is the result of rain detaching and transporting vulnerable soil, either directly by means of rainsplashor indirectly by rill and gully erosion. The channel component calculates erosion and deposition within concentrated flow areas which can be represented as permanent channels or ephemeral gullies. C. Longjun, in Encyclopedia of Environmental Health (Second Edition), 2019. Therefore, the heavier the precipitation, the larger the drops. Jain, V.P. 12.10 and 12.11. Rain erosion is one of the different types of water erosion, among which are also listed: laminar erosion, furrow erosion, erosion in gullies and erosion in terracotta. WEPP model may also be executed in a single-storm mode, although it is very effective when used as a continuous simulation model. The model simulates erosion for some number of years and sums the total soil loss over those years for each point on the hillslope to obtain the average annual values of erosion along the hillslope. Certain points on the hillslope may experience detachment during some rainfall events and deposition during other events. Depending on the type of force, erosion can occur rapidly or require thousands of years. Get premium, high resolution news photos at Getty Images The drops fall in sizes that reach up to six millimeters in diameter. Rainwater is collected from a roof-like surface and redirected to a tank, cistern, deep pit (well, shaft, or borehole), aquifer, or a reservoir with percolation.Dew and fog can also be collected with nets or other tools. Conservation Measures. This means that large droplets carry hundreds of times more energy than droplets. For that, they have considered this criterion as of the ‘more is better’ kind. READ: Chemical Weathering - Definition, Processes and Types The authors have considered that it would be satisfactory to give employment to the majority of the population. 12.10. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. 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Kuhn, ... Wolfgang Fister, in, Soil Movement by Tillage and Other Agricultural Activities. Excessive erosion can threaten the production of agricultural and forest products. In nature as well as in the model predictions, a large percentage of erosion occurs due to a small percentage of rainfall events. Globally, 45.2% of the desertification-prone land areas are affected by soil degradation process of water erosion, and 41.8% by soil degradation of wind erosion. The parameters used by the hydrology and erosion components of the model that must be input by the user include soil conditions for the day of the rainfall event, crop canopy, surface residue, days since last disturbance, surface random roughness, oriented roughness, etc. Farmers can control soil loss through residue management and tillage practices. Weathering can be summarized as the slow and systematic breakdown of stone, soil, and vegetation like wood as a result of contact with elements in the atmosphere such as rain, heat, cold, and wind. Many deep-rooted plants, which protect the soil from erosion, depend more on groundwater than on surface water. Rainwater capture and storage system at the modern heritage property. where Vf(m/s) is the effective fall velocity for the sediment, and q (m2/s) is the discharge per unit width. The first is rain splash, in which soil particles are knocked into the air by raindrop impact. ), P. Tarolli, ... Wenfang CAO, in Encyclopedia of the Anthropocene, 2018. Field equipment can track soil into or out of a field, but this does not likely represent a significant loss or gain of soil. Water erosion occurs when rainfall breaks soil aggregates causing detachment and displacement of soil, either directly by means of raindrop impact or indirectly through large bodies of water. 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